# School of Mathematics

## Prof Charles C Taylor

Professor of Statistics

Statistics

### Contact details

Room: 8.12

Tel: +44 (0)113 3435168

Email: C.C.Taylor @ leeds.ac.uk

### Keywords

Statistical Learning

Spatial statistics

Circular Data

Statistical Smoothing

Statistical Bioinformatics

Data Mining

Multivariate analysis

Kernel Methods

## Research interests

Statistical Learning and Data Mining

Density estimation is a key area within nonparametric statistics which is used in exploratory data analysis and the formulation of hypotheses. A critical choice for user interpretation is how much smoothing to use. In this context I have made innovative utilization of three automatic procedures for three methods of estimation: Akaike's Information Criterion to determine the class width of the histogram, cross-validation methods to choose the number of terms in an orthogonal series estimator, and the bootstrap to choose the window width in the kernel estimator. The latter paper, in particular, is highly regarded since analytical calculations can be used to calculate the ootstrap expectations thus avoiding the usual recourse to simulation. My current interests lie in: the application of kernel density estimation to discrimination problems; the effect of enhancing classifiers through boosting and bagging, and adaptation of kernel methods to circular data.

Data Mining (which provides tools for turning large databases into knowledge) is widely seen as increasingly important topic, particularly with the ability to automatically collect, and store large amounts of data. This field is being tackled by both computer scientists and, to a lesser extent, by statisticians. I have played a key role in cross-fertilization of methods, performance indicators, and formulation of further key issues to resolve.

Spatial statistics and image analysis

Over the past twenty years, statistical methods have gained an increasing role in image analysis and the analysis of spatial data. I have made a significant contribution in

- Image summaries, which are important for identifying suitable models and for classification on the basis of the extracted features. These features can be measurable physical quantities of objects in an image (for example the ratio height/width can be useful in identifying the number 1 in the automatic recognition of vehicle number plates) or they can be parameters in a statistical model (for example the variance).

With the advent of increasing amounts of resolution, it has become possible to estimate the fractal dimension of objects (or their outline) in an image. The fractal dimension is another example of an image summary which can be used to describe objects, and to classify future observations. In this context, I have made a contribution to methods of its estimation (Taylor & Taylor, 1991).

Frequently, single number summaries are inadequate, and (univariate) functions are used to describe features of the image. For example, in a point pattern the density of the distance between two randomly chosen pairs of points can be used to describe clustering or inhibitions - for example, for species which are in competition. For point patterns which are highly regular, the usual sequential methods of simulation are prohibitively slow and I (together with Ian Dryden) have developed several innovative methods for a new model. These methods include a Procrustes shape analysis, and an analysis of interpoint distances based on size. In addition, I have developed methods which have been successfully used for discrimination on the basis of morphological summaries.

### Useful links

My personal home page

The Statlog book is here

## Current postgraduate students

Samira Abushilah (2014)

Wafa Al Mohri (2013)

Amirah Alharthi (2016)

Aziz Aljuaid (2014)

Fatimah Almulhim (2014)

Khaled Alqahtani (2013)

Mohammed Alshahrani (2014)

## Publications

**Shuweihdi F, Taylor CC, Gusnanto A** Classification of form under heterogeneity and non-isotropic errors *Journal of Applied Statistics*, **44**, 1495-1508, 2017

DOI:10.1080/02664763.2016.1214246

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Fensore S, Panzera A, Taylor CC** A note on nonparametric estimation of circular conditional densities *Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation*, **86**, 2573-2582, 2016

DOI:10.1080/00949655.2016.1146279

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Panzera A, Taylor CC** Nonparametric circular quantile regression *Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference*, **170**, 1-14, 2016

DOI:10.1016/j.jspi.2015.08.004

View abstract

**Di Marzio M; Fensore S; Panzera A; Taylor CC ** *Practical performance of local likelihood for circular density estimation*JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION, 2560-2572 2016

DOI:10.1080/00949655.2016.1149588

**Milan Z, Taylor C, Armstrong D, Davies P, Roberts S, Rupnik B, Suddle A** Does preoperative beta-blocker use influence intraoperative hemodynamic profile and post-operative course of liver transplantation? *Transplantation Proceedings*, **48**, 111-115, 2016

DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2015.12.027

View abstract

**Polsen O, Taylor CC** Parametric circular-circular regression and diagnostic analysis In *Geometry Driven Statistics*, 115-128, 2015

DOI:10.1002/9781118866641.ch5

View abstract

**Gusnanto A, Taylor CC, Nafisah I, Wood HM, Rabbitts P, Berri S** Estimating optimal window size for analysis of low-coverage next-generation sequence data. *Bioinformatics*, **30**, 1823-1829, 2014

DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu123

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Panzera A, Taylor CC** Nonparametric Regression for Spherical Data *JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION*, **109**, 748-763, 2014

DOI:10.1080/01621459.2013.866567

**Taylor CC, Di Marzio M, Panzera A** Nonparametric regression for circular responses *Scandinavian Journal of Statistics: theory and applications*, **40**, 238-255, 2013

**Mardia KV, Petty EM, Taylor CC** Matching markers and unlabelled configurations in protein gels *Annals of Applied Statistics*, **6**, 853-869, 2013

**Di Marzio M, Panzera A, Taylor CC** Smooth estimation of circular cumulative distribution functions and quantiles *Journal of Nonparametric Statistics*, **24**, 935-949, 2012

DOI:10.1080/10485252.2012.721517

View abstract

**Mardia KV, Kent JT, Zhang Z, Taylor CC, Hamelryck T** Mixtures of concentrated multivariate sine distributions with applications to bioinformatics *Journal of Applied Statistics*, **39**, 2475-2492, 2012

DOI:10.1080/02664763.2012.719221

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Panzera A, Taylor CC** Non-parametric smoothing and prediction for nonlinear circular time series *Journal of Time Series Analysis*, **33**, 620-630, 2012

DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9892.2012.00794.x

View abstract

**Taylor CC, Mardia KV, Di Marzio M, Panzera A** Validating protein structure using kernel density estimates *Journal of Applied Statistics*, **39**, 2379-2388, 2012

DOI:10.1080/02664763.2012.710898

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Taylor CC** Boosting kernel estimators In *Ensemble Machine Learning: Methods and Applications*, 87-115, 2012

DOI:10.1007/9781441993267_3

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Taylor CC, Ma Y** Boosting Kernel Estimators *ENSEMBLE MACHINE LEARNING: METHODS AND APPLICATIONS*, 87-115, 2012

DOI:10.1007/978-1-4419-9326-7_3

**Di Marzio M, Panzera A, Taylor CC** A note on density estimation for circular data In *Advanced Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Large Data-Sets*, 297-304, 2012

DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-21037-2_27

View abstract

**Milan Z, Taylor C, Duncan B, Kedilaya H, Sylvester D** Statistical modeling of hemodynamic changes during orthotopic liver transplantation: Predictive value for outcome and effect of marginal donors *Transplantation Proceedings*, **43**, 1711-1715, 2011

DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2011.01.165

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Panzera A, Taylor CC** Kernel density estimation on the torus *Journal of Statistical Planning&Inference*, **141**, 2156-2173, 2011

DOI:10.1016/j.jspi.2011.01.002

View abstract

**Iranpanah N, Mohammadzadeh M, Taylor CC** A comparison of block and semi-parametric bootstrap methods for variance estimation in spatial statistics *Computational Statistics and Data Analysis*, **55**, 578-587, 2011

DOI:10.1016/j.csda.2010.05.031

View abstract

**Mardia KV, Kent JT, Hughes G, Taylor CC** Maximum likelihood estimation using composite likelihoods for closed exponential families *BIOMETRIKA*, **96**, 975-982, 2009

DOI:10.1093/biomet/asp056

**Jankovic Z, Taylor C, Duncan B, Kedilaya H, Sylvester D, Narayanan R** Haemodynamic changes during liver transplantation: Predictive value for outcome and effect of marginal donors In *Liver Transplantation: Resection. Therapy and Post-Operative Complications*, 189-208, 2009

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Panzera A, Taylor CC** Local polynomial regression for circular predictors *Statistics&Probability Letters*, **79**, 2066-2075, 2009

DOI:10.1016/j.spl.2009.06.014

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Taylor CC** Using small bias nonparametric density estimators for confidence interval estimation *Journal of Nonparametric Statistics*, **21**, 229-240, 2009

DOI:10.1080/10485250802562607

View abstract

**Ivings L, Towns KV, Matin MA, Taylor C, Ponchel F, Grainger RJ, Ramesar RS, Mackey DA, Inglehearn CF** Evaluation of splicing efficiency in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with splicing-factor retinitis pigmentosa *Molecular Vision*, **14**, 2357-2366, 2008

View abstract

**Bickel P, Buhlmann P, Yao QW, Samworth R, Hall P, Titterington DM, Xue JH, Anagnostopoulos C, Tasoullis DK, Zhang WY, Xia YC, Johnstone IM, Richardson S, Bottolo L, Kent JT, Adragni K, Cook RD, Gather U, Guddat C, Greenshtein E, James GM, Radchenko P, Leng CL, Wang HS, Levina E, Zhu J, Li RZ, Liu YF, Longford NT, Luo WQ, Baxter PD, Taylor CC, Marron JS, Morris JS, Robert CP, Yu KM, Zhang CH, Zhang HH, Zhou HH, Lin XH, Zou H** Sure independence screening for ultrahigh dimensional feature space Discussion *J ROY STAT SOC B*, **70**, 883-911, 2008

**Di Marzio M, Taylor CC** On boosting kernel regression *Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference*, **138**, 2483-2498, 2008

DOI:10.1016/j.jspi.2007.10.005

View abstract

**Boomsma W, Mardia KV, Taylor CC, Ferkinghoff-Borg J, Krogh A, Hamelryck T** A generative, probabilistic model of local protein structure *P NATL ACAD SCI USA*, **105**, 8932-8937, 2008

DOI:10.1073/pnas.0801715105

**Taylor CC** Automatic bandwidth selection for circular density estimation *COMPUT STAT DATA AN*, **52**, 3493-3500, 2008

DOI:10.1016/j.csda.2007.11.003

**Mardia KV, Hughes G, Taylor CC, Singh H** A multivariate von Mises distribution with applications to bioinformatics *CANADIAN JOURNAL OF STATISTICS-REVUE CANADIENNE DE STATISTIQUE*, **36**, 99-109, 2008

**Davies JR, Jackson RM, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** The Poisson Index: a new probabilistic model for protein ligand binding site similarity. *Bioinformatics*, **23**, 3001-3008, 2007

DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btm470

View abstract

**Mardia KV; Petty EM; Taylor CC ** *Using EM to Superimpose 2D Images of Polyacrylamide Gels*Systems Biology&Statistical Bioinformatics, pp.121 2007

**Mardia KV, Taylor CC, Subramaniam GK** Protein bioinformatics and mixtures of bivariate von Mises distributions for angular data *BIOMETRICS*, **63**, 505-512, 2007

DOI:10.1111/j.1541-0420.2006.00682.x

**Langdon MJ, Taylor CC, West RM** Classification of type I-censored bivariate data *COMPUT STAT DATA AN*, **51**, 4562-4576, 2007

DOI:10.1016/j.csda.2006.07.043

**Kent JT, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** Bioinformatics and the Problem of Matching Unlabelled Configurations *Royal Statistical Society. Journal. Series B: Methodological*, 2007

**Xu C, Dowd PA, Mardia KV, Fowell RJ, Taylor CC** Simulating correlated marked point processes. *Journal of Applied Statistics*, 2007

**Davies JR, Jackson RM, Taylor CC, Mardia KV** A Statistical Model for Measuring Binding Site Similarity *Bioinformatics*, 2007

**Arato NM, Dryden IL, Taylor CC** Hierarchical Bayesian modelling of spatial age-dependent mortality *COMPUT STAT DATA AN*, **51**, 1347-1363, 2006

DOI:10.1016/j.csda.2006.02.007

**Dryden IL, Farnoosh R, Taylor CC** Image segmentation using Voronoi Polygons and MCMC, with application to muscle fibre images. *Journal of Applied Statistics*, **33**, 609-622, 2006

DOI:10.1080/02664760600679825

View abstract

**Petty EM, Mardia KV, Taylor CC, Chaudhry Q** Matching Pesticides to Proteins to Predict Toxicity In *Interdisciplinary Statistics and Bioinformatics*, 150-153, 2006

**Hughes G, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** Modeling Protein Folds with a Trivariate von Mises Distribution In *Interdisciplinary Statistics and Bioinformatics*, 120-123, 2006

**Davies JR, Jackson RM, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** Statistical Comparison of Protein Binding Sites In *Interdisciplinary Statistics and Bioinformatics*, 114-115, 2006

**Boomsma W, Kent JT, Mardia KV, Taylor CC, Hamelryck T** Graphical Models and Directional Statistics Capture Protein Structure In *Interdisciplinary Statistics and Bioinformatics*, 91-94, 2006

**Kerr KG, Beggs CB, Dean SG, Thornton J, Donnelly J, Todd NJ, Sleigh PA, Qureshi A, Taylor CC** Air ionisation and colonisation/infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species in an intensive care unit *Intensive Care Medicine*, **32**, 315-317, 2006

DOI:10.1007/s00134-005-0002-8

View abstract

**Di Marzio M, Taylor CC** Boosted Regression Estimates of Spatial Data: Pointwise Inference *Journal of Mathematics and Statistics*, **1**, 247-257, 2006

**Hughes G, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** Circular time series with application to protein conformations In *Quantitative Biology, Shape Analysis, and Wavelets*, 146-149, 2005

**Xu C, Dowd PA, Mardia KV, Fowell RJ, Taylor CC** Inference for marked point processes In *Quantitative Biology, Shape Analysis and Wavelets*, 172-174, 2005

**Di Marzio M, Taylor CC** Kernel density classification and boosting: an L-2 analysis *STAT COMPUT*, **15**, 113-123, 2005

DOI:10.1007/s11222-005-6203-8

**Abdulhussain** Boosted Regression Estimates of Spatial Data: Pointwise Inference *Journal of Mathematics and Statistics*, **1**, 257-266, 2005

DOI:10.3844/jmssp.2005.257.266

**Dryden IL, Markus L, Taylor CC, Kovacs J** Non-stationary spatio-temporal analysis of karst water levels *Royal Statistical Society. Journal. Series C: Applied Statistics*, **54**, 673-690, 2005

**Di Marzio M, Taylor CC** On boosting kernel density methods for multivariate data: density estimation and classification *Statistical Methods and Applications*, **14**, 163-178, 2005

DOI:10.1007/s10260-005-0110-1

**Matin MA, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** Support vector machines-type procedure through kriging In *Bioinformatics, Images, and Wavelets*, 138-140, 2004

**Mardia KV, Taylor CC, Subramaniam M** EM algorithm for bivariate circular distribution In *Bioinformatics, Images, and Wavelets*, 146-154, 2004

**Kent JT, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** Matching problems for unlabelled configurations In *Bioinformatics, Images, and Wavelets*, 33-36, 2004

**Taylor CC, Zempleni A** Chain plot: a tool for exploiting bivariate temporal structures *COMPUT STAT DATA AN*, **46**, 141-153, 2004

DOI:10.1016/S0167-9473(03)00120-8

**Di Marzio M, Taylor CC** Boosting kernel density estimates: A bias reduction technique? *BIOMETRIKA*, **91**, 226-233, 2004

**Mardia KV, Taylor CC, Subramaniam M** Applications of circular distributions to conformational angles in proteins In *Stochastic geometry, biological structure and images*, 149-152, 2003

**Kent JT, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** Matching unlabelled configurations using the EM algorithm In *Proceedings in Stochastic Geometry, Biological Structure and Images*, 19-21, 2003

**Mardia KV, Taylor CC, Westhead DR** Structural bioinformatics revisited In *Stochastic geometry, biological structure and images*, 11-18, 2003

**Dryden IL, Scarr MR, Taylor CC** Bayesian texture segmentation of weed and crop images using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo methods *J ROY STAT SOC C-APP*, **52**, 31-50, 2003

**Mardia KV, Taylor CC, Subramaniam M** Speech recognition and cepstral coefficients In *Statistics of large datasets - functional and image data, bioinformatics and data mining*, 77-84, 2002

**Neely K, Taylor CC, Prosser O, Hamlyn PF** Assessment of cooked alpaca and llama meats from the statistical analysis of data collected using an 'electronic nose' *Meat Science*, **58**, 53-58, 2001

DOI:10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00130-3

**Taylor CC, Dryden IL, Farnoosh R** The K-function for nearly regular point processes. *Biometrics*, **57**, 224-231, 2001

View abstract

**Southworth R, Mardia KV, Taylor CC** Transformation- and label-invariant neural network for the classification of landmark data *Journal of Applied Statistics*, **27**, 205-211, 2000

View abstract

**Mardia KV, Southworth HR, Taylor CC** On bias in maximum likelihood estimators *Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference*, **76**, 31-39, 1999

View abstract

**Faghihi MR, Taylor CC, Dryden IL** Procrustes shape analysis of triangulations of a two-coloured point pattern *Statistics and Computing*, **9**, 43-53, 1999

View abstract

**Dryden IL, Taylor CC, Faghihi MR** Size analysis of nearly regular Delaunay triangulations *Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability*, **1**, 97-117, 1999

View abstract

**Morris RJ; Mardia KV; Taylor CC; Burrows JD ** *Knowledge based geometric object recognition*IEE Conference Publication, 47-50 1997

View abstract

**Taylor C; Nakhaeizadeh G ** *Learning in dynamically changing domains: Theory revision and context dependence issues*Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 353-360 1997

View abstract

**Dryden IL, Faghihi MR, Taylor CC** Procrustes shape analysis of planar point subsets *Royal Statistical Society. Journal. Series B: Methodological*, **59**, 353-374, 1997

View abstract

**Nakhaeizadeh G; Taylor CC ** *Machine Learning&Statistics : the interface*. John Wiley&Sons, Inc 1997

View abstract

**Taylor CC ** Classification and kernel density estimation. **41**, 411-417 1997

**Taylor CC; Faghihi MR; Dryden IL ** *An understanding of muscle fibre images*Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 223-228 1995

View abstract

**Burrows JD; Little JA; Mardia KV; Taylor CC; Walder AN ** *Statistical approaches to image restoration*IEE Conference Publication, 59-63 1995

View abstract

**Taylor CC** Simulation methods to estimate smoothing parameters in image reconstruction *Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation*, **49**, 161-177, 1994

DOI:10.1080/00949659408811569

View abstract

**Lexell J, Sjöström M, Nordlund A, Taylor CC** Growth and development of human muscle: A quantitative morphological study of whole vastus lateralis from childhood to adult age *Muscle& Nerve*, **15**, 404-409, 1992

DOI:10.1002/mus.880150323

View abstract

**Venema HW, Lexell J, Taylor C, Stewart JD, Phillips LH, Ho SL, Shah M, Williams AC, Patock T, Nandedkar SD, Sanders DB, Yuki N, Sato S, Fujimoto S, Yamada S, Tsujino Y, Kinoshita A, Itoh T, Barnes WS, Hasson SM, Shoji S** Letters to the editor *Muscle& Nerve*, **15**, 964-972, 1992

DOI:10.1002/mus.880150816

**Lexell J, Taylor C** Fiber density: A fast and accurate way to estimate human muscle fiber areas [2] *Muscle and Nerve*, **14**, 476-477, 1991

**Sjöström M, Lexell J, Eriksson A, Taylor CC** Evidence of fibre hyperplasia in human skeletal muscles from healthy young men? - A left-right comparison of the fibre number in whole anterior tibialis muscles *European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology*, **62**, 301-304, 1991

DOI:10.1007/BF00634963

View abstract

**Lexell J, Taylor CC** Variability in muscle fibre areas in whole human quadriceps muscle: Effects of increasing age *Journal of Anatomy*, **174**, 239-249, 1991

View abstract

**Lexell J, Taylor CC** A morphometrical comparison of right and left whole human vastus lateralis muscle: how to reduce sampling errors in biopsy techniques *Clinical Physiology*, **11**, 271-276, 1991

DOI:10.1111/j.1475-097X.1991.tb00458.x

View abstract

**Lexell J, Taylor C** “Smoothed histograms”: A visual aid for the analysis of distributions of muscle fiber areas *Muscle& Nerve*, **14**, 826-828, 1991

DOI:10.1002/mus.880140905

View abstract

**Sohn YH, Sunwoo IN, Chi JG, Lexell J, Taylor C, Priori A, Berardelli A, Inghilleri M, Cruccu G, Zaccagnini M, Manfredi M, Palmowski A, Reichmann H, Toyka KV, Letz R, Gerr FE, Simpson DM, Rivner MH, Swift TR, Crout BO, Rhodes KP** Letters to the editor *Muscle& Nerve*, **14**, 474-480, 1991

DOI:10.1002/mus.880140515

**Taylor CC** Orthogonal series estimators and cross-validation *Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation*, **37**, 151-158, 1990

DOI:10.1080/00949659008811301

**Taylor CC** Bootstrap choice of the smoothing parameter in Kernel density estimation *Biometrika*, **76**, 705-712, 1989

DOI:10.1093/biomet/76.4.705

View abstract

**Lexell J, Taylor CC** Variability in muscle fibre areas in whole human quadriceps muscle: how to reduce sampling errors in biopsy techniques *Clinical Physiology*, **9**, 333-343, 1989

DOI:10.1111/j.1475-097X.1989.tb00987.x

View abstract

**Lexell J, Taylor CC** Variability in muscle fibre areas in whole human quadriceps muscle. How much and why? *Acta Physiologica Scandinavica*, **136**, 561-568, 1989

View abstract

**Lexell J, Taylor CC, Sjöström M** What is the cause of the ageing atrophy?. Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men *Journal of the Neurological Sciences*, **84**, 275-294, 1988

DOI:10.1016/0022-510X(88)90132-3

View abstract

**Taylor CC** Akaike's information criterion and the histogram *Biometrika*, **74**, 636-639, 1987

DOI:10.1093/biomet/74.3.636

View abstract

**Taylor CC, Burrough PA** Multiscale sources of spatial variation in soil. III. Improved methods for fitting the nested model to one-dimensional semivariograms *Mathematical Geology*, **18**, 811-821, 1986

DOI:10.1007/BF00899745

View abstract

**Lexell J, Taylor C, Sjostrom M** Analysis of sampling errors in biopsy techniques using data from whole muscle cross sections *Journal of Applied Physiology*, **59**, 1228-1235, 1985

View abstract

**Taylor CC** A new method for unfolding sphere size distributions *Journal of Microscopy*, **132**, 57-66, 1983

DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2818.1983.tb04708.x

© Copyright Leeds 2011