# School of Mathematics

## Dr Oliver G Harlen

Reader in Applied Mathematics

Faculty of MAPS

### Contact details

Room: 9.07

Tel: +44 (0)113 3435189

Email: O.G.Harlen @ leeds.ac.uk

### Keywords

Fluid Dynamics

Viscoelasticity

Polymers

Inkjets

Biomolecules

Suspensions

Ultrasound

Finite Elements

## Research interests

Fluid dynamics of complex fluids such as polymer solutions, polymer melts and suspensions. These fluids do not obey the Navier-Stokes equation, but have a viscoelastic and nonlinear stress strain-rate relation due to their complex microscale structure. My research involves both developing constitutive models that capture this behaviour and predicting how these fluids flow in industrial applications.

Much of my current research is focussed on understanding how such fluid properties affect the performance of industrial inkjets (as part of an EPSRC programme grant on Industrial Inkjet Technology).

I am also studying methods for simulating large biomolecules, such as molecular motors, where the motion of interest occurs on timescales that are too long to be captured by atomistic simulations. Here we are using finite element methods to model the distortion of the biomolecules that result from thermal fluctuations.

Another area of my research is the scattering of ultrasound in colloidal suspensions, which can be used to determine the microstructure of these opaque suspensions.

### Useful links

Innovation in Industrial Inkjet Technology

Centre for Doctoral Training in Fluid Dynamics

Centre for Doctoral Training in Soft Matter and Functional Interfaces

## Publications

**Greiciunas E, Wong J, Gorbatenko I, Hall J, Wilson MCT, Kapur N, Harlen OG, Vadillo D, Threlfall-Holmes P** Design and operation of a Rayleigh Ohnesorge jetting extensional rheometer (ROJER) to study extensional properties of low viscosity polymer solutions *Journal of Rheology*, **61**, 467-476, 2017

DOI:10.1122/1.4979099

View abstract

**Hanson B; Harris S; Read D; Harlen O ** *Fluctuating Finite Element Analysis: Development and Applications to Cytoplasmic Dynein*BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 329A-330A 2016

**Hoath SD, Hsiao WK, Martin GD, Jung S, Butler SA, Morrison NF, Harlen OG, Yang LS, Bain CD, Hutchings IM** Oscillations of aqueous PEDOT:PSS fluid droplets and the properties of complex fluids in drop-on-demand inkjet printing *Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics*, **223**, 28-36, 2015

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2015.05.006

View abstract

**Solernou A; Harris SA; Harlen OG; Read DJ; Smith KA; Muench SP ** *Understanding fibrin protofibrils at the molecular level: formation and flexibility through a new coarse-grained protein modelling approach*, 839-839 2015

**Hanson B, Richardson R, Oliver R, Read DJ, Harlen O, Harris S** Modelling biomacromolecular assemblies with continuum mechanics *Biochemical Society Transactions*, **43**, 186-192, 2015

DOI:10.1042/BST20140294

View abstract

**Harris SA, Hanson B, Richardson R, Read DJ, Harlen OG** Mesoscale Modelling of Biomolecules using Continuum Mechanics *BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL*, **108**, 183A-183A, 2015

**Mathues W, McIlroy C, Harlen OG, Clasen C** Capillary breakup of suspensions near pinch-off *Physics of Fluids*, **27**, 2015

DOI:10.1063/1.4930011

View abstract

**Gray A, Harlen OG, Harris SA, Khalid S, Leung YM, Lonsdale R, Mulholland AJ, Pearson AR, Read DJ, Richardson RA** In pursuit of an accurate spatial and temporal model of biomolecules at the atomistic level: a perspective on computer simulation. *Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr*, **71**, 162-172, 2015

DOI:10.1107/S1399004714026777

View abstract

**Richardson RA, Papachristos K, Read DJ, Harlen OG, Harrison M, Paci E, Muench SP, Harris SA** Understanding the apparent stator-rotor connections in the rotary ATPase family using coarse-grained computer modeling. *Proteins*, **82**, 3298-3311, 2014

DOI:10.1002/prot.24680

View abstract

**Yang L, Kazmierski BK, Hoath SD, Jung S, Hsiao W-K, Wang Y, Berson A, Harlen O, Kapur N, Bain CD** Determination of dynamic surface tension and viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids from drop oscillations *Physics of Fluids*, **26**, 2014

DOI:10.1063/1.4901823

View abstract

**Oliver R, Richardson RA, Hanson B, Kendrick K, Read DJ, Harlen OG, Harris SA** Modelling the dynamic architecture of biomaterials using continuum mechanics In *Protein Modelling*, 175-197, 2014

DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-09976-7_8

View abstract

**Hoath SD, Vadillo DC, Harlen OG, McIlroy C, Morrison NF, Hsiao W-K, Tuladhar TR, Jung S, Martin GD, Hutchings IM** Inkjet printing of weakly elastic polymer solutions *Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics*, **205**, 1-10, 2014

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2014.01.002

View abstract

**McIlroy C, Harlen OG** Modelling capillary break-up of particulate suspensions *Physics of Fluids*, **26**, 2014

DOI:10.1063/1.4866789

View abstract

**Hazlehurst TA, Harlen OG, Holmes MJ, Povey MJW** Multiple scattering in dispersions, for long wavelength thermoacoustic solutions *Journal of Physics: Conference Series*, **498**, 2014

DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/498/1/012005

View abstract

**Hoyle DM, Auhl D, Harlen OG, Barroso VC, Wilhelm M, McLeish TCB** Large amplitude oscillatory shear and Fourier transform rheology analysis of branched polymer melts *Journal of Rheology*, **58**, 969-997, 2014

DOI:10.1122/1.4881467

View abstract

**Hoath SD; Hsiao WK; Jung S; Yang LS; Bain CD; Wright SC; Morrison NF; Harlen OG; Martin GD; Hutchings IM ** *Properties of PEDOT: PSS from oscillating drop studies*International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, 299-303 2014

View abstract

**Hoath SD; Vadillo DC; Harlen OG; Mcllroy C; Morrison NF; Hsiao WK; Tuladhar TR; Jung S; Martin GD; Hutchings IM ** *DoD inkjet printing of weakly elastic polymer solutions*International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, 152-156 2014

View abstract

**Morrison NF; Harlen OG; Hoath SD ** *Towards satellite free drop-on-demand printing of complex fluids*International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, 162-165 2014

View abstract

**Morrison NF; Harten OG ** *Drop-on-demand printing of complex liquids*International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, 271-276 2013

View abstract

**McIlroy C, Harlen OG, Morrison NF** Modelling the jetting of dilute polymer solutions in drop-on-demand inkjet printing *Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics*, **201**, 17-28, 2013

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2013.05.007

View abstract

**Hoath SD, Castrejen-Pita JR, Hsiao W-K, Jung S, Martin GD, Hutchings IM, Tuladhar TR, Vadillo DC, Butler SA, Mackley MR, McIlroy C, Morrison NF, Harlen OG, Yow HN** Jetting of complex fluids *Journal of Imaging Science and Technology*, **57**, 40403-1-4040310, 2013

DOI:10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2013.57.4.040403

View abstract

**Hoath SD, Hsiao W-K, Jung S, Martin GD, Hutchings IM, Morrison NF, Harlen OG** Drop speeds from drop-on-demand ink-jet print heads *Journal of Imaging Science and Technology*, **57**, 2013

DOI:10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2013.57.1.010503

View abstract

**Oliver R, Read DJ, Harlen OG, Harris SA** A Stochastic Finite Element Model for the Dynamics of Globular Macromolecules *Journal of Computational Physics*, **239**, 147-165, 2013

DOI:10.1016/j.jcp.2012.12.027

View abstract

**Hwang WR, Harlen OG, Walkley MA** An efficient iterative scheme for the highly constrained augmented Stokes problem for the numerical simulation of flows in porous media *Korea-Australia Rheology Journal*, **25**, 55-64, 2013

DOI:10.1007/s13367-013-0006-9

View abstract

**Hoyle DM, Huang Q, Auhl D, Hassell D, Rasmussen HK, Skov AL, Harlen OG, Hassager O, McLeish TCB** Transient overshoot extensional rheology of long chain branched polyethylenes: experimental and numerical comparisons between filament stretching and cross-slot flow *Journal of Rheology*, **57**, 293-313, 2013

DOI:10.1122/1.4767982

View abstract

**Harlen OG; Castrejon-Pita JR; Castrejon-Pita A ** *Asymmetric Detachment from Angled Nozzles Plates in Drop-on Demand Inkjet Printing*NIP29: 29TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES / DIGITAL FABRICATION 2013, 277-280 2013

**Hoath SD, Hutchings IM, Harlen OG, McIlroy C, Morrison NF** Regimes of polymer behaviour in drop-on-demand ink-jetting *International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies*, 408-411, 2012

View abstract

**Vadillo DC, MacKley MR, Tembely M, Soucemarianadin A, Morrison NF, Harlen OG, Tembely M, Soucemarianadin A** The matching of polymer solution fast filament stretching, relaxation, and break up experimental results with 1D and 2D numerical viscoelastic simulation *Journal of Rheology*, **56**, 1491-1516, 2012

DOI:10.1122/1.4749828

View abstract

**Hoath SD, Harlen OG, Hutchings IM** Jetting behavior of polymer solutions in drop-on-demand inkjet printing *Journal of Rheology*, **56**, 1109-1127, 2012

DOI:10.1122/1.4724331

View abstract

**Yoon S, Walkley MA, Harlen OG** Two particle interactions in a confined viscoelastic fluid under shear *Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics*, **185-186**, 39-48, 2012

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2012.07.003

View abstract

**Morrison NF, Harlen OG** Inkjet printing of non-Newtonian fluids *International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies*, 360-364, 2011

View abstract

**Hassell DG, Lord TD, Scelsi L, Klein DH, Auhl D, Harlen OG, McLeish TCB, Mackley MR** The effect of boundary curvature on the stress response of linear and branched polyethylenes in a contraction-expansion flow *RHEOLOGICA ACTA*, **50**, 675-689, 2011

DOI:10.1007/s00397-011-0551-4

**Auhl D, Hoyle DM, Hassell D, Lord TD, Harlen OG, Mackley MR, McLeish TCB** Cross-slot extensional rheometry and the steady-state extensional response of long chain branched polymer melts *J RHEOL*, **55**, 875-900, 2011

DOI:10.1122/1.3589972

**Hwang WR, Walkley MA, Harlen OG** A fast and efficient iterative scheme for viscoelastic flow simulations with the DEVSS finite element method *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **166**, 354-362, 2011

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2011.01.003

**Castrejon-Pita JR, Morrison NF, Harlen OG, Martin GD, Hutchings IM** Experiments and Lagrangian simulations on the formation of droplets in drop-on-demand mode *PHYS REV E*, **83**, 2011

DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.83.036306

**Tenchev R, Gough T, Harlen OG, Jimack PK, Klein DH, Walkley MA** Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **166**, 307-320, 2011

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2010.12.008

**Castrejon-Pita JR, Morrison NF, Harlen OG, Martin GD, Hutchings IM** Experiments and Lagrangian simulations on the formation of droplets in continuous mode *PHYS REV E*, **83**, 2011

DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.83.016301

**Harlen OG, Holmes MJ, Pinfield VJ, Povey MJW, Sleeman BD** A perturbation solution for long wavelength thermoacoustic propagation in dispersions *JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS*, **234**, 1996-2002, 2010

DOI:10.1016/j.cam.2009.08.101

**Morrison NF, Harlen OG** Viscoelasticity in inkjet printing *RHEOLOGICA ACTA*, **49**, 619-632, 2010

DOI:10.1007/s00397-009-0419-z

**Ahamadi M, Harlen OG** Numerical study of the rheology of rigid fillers suspended in long-chain branched polymer under planar extensional flow *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **165**, 281-291, 2010

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2010.01.002

**Lord TD, Scelsi L, Hassell DG, Mackley MR, Embery J, Auhl D, Harlen OG, Tenchev R, Jimack PK, Walkley MA** The matching of 3D Rolie-Poly viscoelastic numerical simulations with experimental polymer melt flow within a slit and a cross-slot geometry *J RHEOL*, **54**, 355-373, 2010

DOI:10.1122/1.3306572

**Hoyle DM, Harlen OG, Auhl D, McLeish TCB** Non-linear step strain of branched polymer melts *J RHEOL*, **53**, 917-942, 2009

DOI:10.1122/1.3143794

**Scelsi L, Mackley MR, Klein H, Olmsted PD, Graham RS, Harlen OG, McLeish TCB** Experimental observations and matching viscoelastic specific work predictions of flow-induced crystallization for molten polyethylene within two flow geometries *J RHEOL*, **53**, 859-876, 2009

DOI:10.1122/1.3123209

**Hassell DG, Hoyle D, Auhl D, Harlen O, Mackley MR, McLeish TCB** Effect of branching in cross-slot flow: the formation of "W cusps" *RHEOL ACTA*, **48**, 551-561, 2009

DOI:10.1007/s00397-009-0353-0

**Graham RS, Bent J, Clarke N, Hutchings LR, Richards RW, Gough T, Hoyle DM, Harlen OG, Grillo I, Auhl D, McLeish TCB** The long-chain dynamics in a model homopolymer blend under strong flow: small-angle neutron scattering and theory *SOFT MATTER*, **5**, 2383-2389, 2009

DOI:10.1039/b817440g

View abstract

**Graham RS, Bent J, Clarke N, Hutchings LR, Richards RW, Gough T, Hoyle DM, Harlen OG, Grillo I, Auhl D, McLeish TCB** The long-chain dynamics in a model homopolymer blend under strong flow: small-angle neutron scattering and theory *SOFT MATTER*, **5**, 2383-2389, 2009

DOI:10.1039/b817440g

**Ahamadi M, Harlen OG** A Lagrangian finite element method for simulation of a suspension under planar extensional flow *J COMPUT PHYS*, **227**, 7543-7560, 2008

DOI:10.1016/j.jcp.2008.04.035

**Hassell DG, Mackley MR, Sahin M, Wilson HJ, Harlen OG, McLeish TCB** Molecular physics of a polymer engineering instability: Experiments and computation *PHYS REV E*, **77**, 2008

DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.77.050801

**Hoyle DM; Harlen OG; McLeish TCB; Auhl D ** *Non-linear step strain of branched polymer melts*XVTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON RHEOLOGY - THE SOCIETY OF RHEOLOGY 80TH ANNUAL MEETING, PTS 1 AND 2, 451-453 2008

**Tenchev R; Harlen O; Jimack PK; Walkley MA ** *Finite Element Modelling of Two- and Three-Dimensional Viscoelastic Polymer Flows*TRENDS IN ENGINEERING COMPUTATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 81-101 2008

**Malidi A; Harlen O ** *Numerical simulations of suspensions of elastic particles in polymer melts*XVTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON RHEOLOGY - THE SOCIETY OF RHEOLOGY 80TH ANNUAL MEETING, PTS 1 AND 2, 641-643 2008

**Ahamadi M; Harlen OG ** *Rheology of suspensions derived from numerical simulation*NUMIFORM '07: Materials Processing and Design: Modeling, Simulation and Applications, Pts I and II, 343-348 2007

**Everitt SL, Harlen OG, Wilson HJ** Bubble growth in a two-dimensional viscoelastic foam *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **137**, 46-59, 2006

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2006.03.004

**Everitt SL, Harlen OG, Wilson HJ** Competition and interaction of polydisperse bubbles in polymer foams *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **137**, 60-71, 2006

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2006.03.005

**Graham RS, Bent J, Hutchings LR, Richards RW, Groves DJ, Embery J, Nicholson TM, McLeish TCB, Likhtman AE, Harlen OG, Read DJ, Gough T, Spares R, Coates PD, Grillo I** Measuring and predicting the dynamics of linear monodisperse entangled polymers in rapid flow through an abrupt contraction. A small angle neutron scattering study *MACROMOLECULES*, **39**, 2700-2709, 2006

DOI:10.1021/ma052357z

**Pinfield VJ, Harlen OG, Povey MJW, Sleeman BD** Scattering of Ultrasound by Particles *SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics*, **66**, 489-509, 2006

**Pinfield VJ, Harlen OG, Povey MJW, Sleeman BD** Acoustic propagation in dispersions in the long wavelength limit *SIAM J APPL MATH*, **66**, 489-509, 2006

DOI:10.1137/04061698X

**Collis MW, Lele AK, Mackley MR, Graham RS, Groves DJ, Likhtman AE, Nicholson TM, Harlen OG, McLeish TCB, Hutchings LR, Fernyhough CM, Young RN** Constriction flows of monodisperse linear entangled polymers: Multiscale modeling and flow visualization *J RHEOL*, **49**, 501-522, 2005

DOI:10.1122/1.1849180

**Pinfield VJ, Harlen OG, Povey MJW, Sleeman BD** ACOUSTIC PROPAGATION IN DISPERSIONS IN THE LONG WAVELENGTH LIMIT *SIAM J APPL MATH*, **66**, 489-509, 2005

DOI:10.1137/04061698X

**Everitt SL, Harlen OG, Wilson HJ, Read DJ** Bubble dynamics in viscoelastic fluids with application to reacting and non-reacting polymer foams *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **114**, 83-107, 2003

DOI:10.1016/S0377-0257(03)00108-3

**Bent J, Hutchings LR, Richards RW, Gough T, Spares R, Coates PD, Grillo I, Harlen OG, Read DJ, Graham RS, Likhtman AE, Groves DJ, Nicholson TM, McLeish TCB** Neutron-mapping polymer flow: Scattering, flow visualization, and molecular theory *SCIENCE*, **301**, 1691-1695, 2003

**Harlen OG, Holmes MJ, Povey MJW, Sleeman BD** Acoustic propagation in dispersions and the geometric theory of diffraction *SIAM J APPL MATH*, **63**, 834-849, 2003

**Harlen OG** The negative wake behind a sphere sedimenting through a viscoelastic fluid *JOURNAL OF NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID MECHANICS*, **108**, 411-430, 2002

**Lee K, Mackley MR, McLeish TCB, Nicholson TM, Harlen OG** Experimental observation and numerical simulation of transient "stress fangs" within flowing molten polyethylene *J RHEOL*, **45**, 1261-1277, 2001

**Harlen OG, Holmes MJ, Povey MJW, Qiu Y, Sleeman BD** A low frequency potential scattering description of acoustic propagation in dispersions *SIAM J APPL MATH*, **61**, 1906-1931, 2001

**Blackwell RJ, Harlen OG, McLeish TCB** Theoretical linear and nonlinear rheology of symmetric treelike polymer melts *MACROMOLECULES*, **34**, 2579-2596, 2001

**Graham RS, McLeish TCB, Harlen OG** Using the pom-pom equations to analyze polymer melts in exponential shear *J RHEOL*, **45**, 275-290, 2001

**Blackwell RJ; McLeish TCB; Harlen OG ** *Molecular drag-strain coupling in branched polymer melts*Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings 2000

View abstract

**Blackwell RJ, McLeish TCB, Harlen OG** Molecular Drag-Strain Coupling in Branched Polymer Melts *Journal of Rheology*, **44**, 121-136, 2000

View abstract

**Harlen O; Qiu Y; Sleeman B; Povey M ** *Acoustic scattering in dis]dispersions*ANALYTICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN SCATTERING AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS, 123-134 2000

**Inkson NJ, McLeish TCB, Harlen OG, Groves DJ** Predicting low density polyethylene melt rheology in elongational and shear flows with "pom-pom" constitutive equations *J RHEOL*, **43**, 873-896, 1999

**Harlen OG, Sundararajakumar RR, Koch DL** Numerical simulations of a sphere settling through a suspension of neutrally buoyant fibres *J FLUID MECH*, **388**, 355-388, 1999

**Bishko GB, Harlen OG, McLeish TCB, Nicholson TM** Numerical simulation of the transient flow of branched polymer melts through a planar contraction using the 'pom-pom' model *JOURNAL OF NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID MECHANICS*, **82**, 255-273, 1999

**Koch DL, Harlen OG** Interfacial tension at the boundary between nematic and isotropic phases of a hard rod solution *Macromolecules*, **32**, 219-226, 1999

**Inkson N; McLeish T; Harlen O ** *Modelling low density polyethylene rheology using the pom-pom model*PROGRESS AND TRENDS IN RHEOLOGY V, 336-337 1998

**Harlen OG, Koch DL** Orientational drift of a fibre suspended in a dilute polymer solution during oscillatory shear flow *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **73**, 81-93, 1997

**Harlen O** Ten-bob swerver *NEW SCI*, **156**, U1-U1, 1997

**Bishko G, McLeish TCB, Harlen OG, Larson RG** Theoretical molecular rheology of branched polymers in simple and complex flows: The pom-pom model *PHYS REV LETT*, **79**, 2352-2355, 1997

**Harlen OG** Simulations of Viscoelastic Flows In *The Mechanics of Thin Films*, 366-374, 1996

**Koch DL; Sundararajakumar AA; Harlen OG ** *Dynamic simulations of fiber suspensions with mechanical contacts*XIITH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON RHEOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS, 604-605 1996

**Bishko GB; Harlen OG; McLeish TCB; Bick D ** *Molecular constitutive equation in a Lagrangian flow solver - bridging the gap*XIITH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON RHEOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS, 275-276 1996

**HARLEN OG, RALLISON JM, SZABO P** A SPLIT LAGRANGIAN-EULERIAN METHOD FOR SIMULATING TRANSIENT VISCOELASTIC FLOWS *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **60**, 81-104, 1995

**Szabo P; Hinch EJ; Rallison JM; Harlen OG ** *Simulation of viscoelastic flow through a tube with a constriction*ANNUAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE NORDIC RHEOLOGY SOCIETY, VOL 3, 1995, 3-5 1995

**HARLEN OG, KOCH DL** SIMPLE SHEAR-FLOW OF A SUSPENSION OF FIBERS IN A DILUTE POLYMER-SOLUTION AT HIGH DEBORAH NUMBER *J FLUID MECH*, **252**, 187-207, 1993

**HARLEN OG, HINCH EJ, RALLISON JM** BIREFRINGENT PIPES - THE STEADY FLOW OF A DILUTE POLYMER-SOLUTION NEAR A STAGNATION POINT *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **44**, 229-265, 1992

**HARLEN OG, KOCH DL** EXTENSIONAL FLOW OF A SUSPENSION OF FIBERS IN A DILUTE POLYMER-SOLUTION *PHYS FLUIDS A-FLUID*, **4**, 1070-1073, 1992

**HARLEN OG** HIGH-DEBORAH-NUMBER FLOW OF A DILUTE POLYMER-SOLUTION PAST A SPHERE FALLING ALONG THE AXIS OF A CYLINDRICAL TUBE *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **37**, 157-173, 1990

**HARLEN OG, RALLISON JM, CHILCOTT MD** HIGH-DEBORAH-NUMBER FLOWS OF DILUTE POLYMER-SOLUTIONS *J NON-NEWTON FLUID*, **34**, 319-349, 1990

**Walkley MA, Tenchev R, Gough T, Klein DH, Jimack PK, Harlen OG** Finite element analysis of 3-d polymer melts *Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics*, **166**, 307-320,

DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2010.12.008

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